Today is Sunday, July 12, the 193rd day of 2015. There are 172 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On July 12, 1862, during the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln signed a bill authorizing the Army Medal of Honor.

On this date:

In 1543, England’s King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr.

In 1690, forces led by William of Orange defeated the army of James II at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland.

In 1909, the House of Representatives joined the Senate in passing the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, allowing for a federal income tax, and submitted it to the states. (It was declared ratified in February 1913.)

In 1948, the Democratic National Convention, which nominated President Harry S. Truman for a second term of office, opened in Philadelphia.

In 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower was flown by helicopter from the White House to a secret mountaintop location as part of a drill involving a mock nuclear attack on Washington.

In 1965, the Beach Boys single “California Girls” was released by Capitol Records.

In 1967, six days of race-related rioting erupted in Newark, New Jersey; the violence claimed 26 lives.

In 1975, the African island nation of San Tome and Principe became independent of Portugal.

In 1977, President Jimmy Carter defended Supreme Court limits on government payments for poor women’s abortions, saying, “There are many things in life that are not fair.”

In 1984, Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale announced his choice of U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running-mate; Ferraro was the first woman to run for vice president on a major-party ticket.

In 1988, Democratic presidential candidate Michael S. Dukakis tapped Sen. Lloyd Bentsen of Texas as his running-mate.

In 1994, President Bill Clinton, visiting Germany, went to the eastern sector of Berlin, the first U.S. president to do so since Harry Truman.

Ten years ago: Mohammed Bouyeri, a Muslim extremist on trial in the slaying of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh, unexpectedly confessed in court, saying he was driven by religious conviction. (Bouyeri was sentenced to life in prison.) Five Israelis were killed in a suicide bombing at the entrance of a mall in Netanya. Prince Albert II of Monaco acceded to the throne of a 700-year-old dynasty. Miguel Tejada and Mark Teixeira led the American League to a 7-5 win over the National League in Detroit for the AL’s eighth straight All-Star victory.

Five years ago: Roman Polanski was declared a free man, no longer confined to house arrest in his Alpine villa, after Swiss authorities rejected a U.S. request for the Oscar-winning director’s extradition because of a 32-year-old sex conviction. NBA commissioner David Stern fined Cleveland owner Dan Gilbert $100,000 for releasing a sharp-tongued statement shortly after LeBron James announced he was leaving the Cavaliers for Miami.

One year ago: Afghanistan’s two rival candidates reached a breakthrough agreement brokered by U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry to allow a complete audit of their contested presidential election. (Former Finance Minister Ashraf Ghani emerged the winner over former Foreign Minister Abdullah Abdullah.)

Today’s Birthdays: Movie director Monte Hellman is 86. Comedian Bill Cosby is 78. Singer-musician Christine McVie is 72. Actress Denise Nicholas is 71. Singer-songwriter Butch Hancock is 70. Fitness guru Richard Simmons is 67. Actor Jay Thomas is 67. Singer Walter Egan is 67. Writer-producer Brian Grazer is 64. Actress Cheryl Ladd is 64. Country singer Julie Miller is 59. Gospel singer Sandi Patty is 59. Actress Mel Harris is 59. Actor Buddy Foster is 58. Rock guitarist Dan Murphy (Soul Asylum) is 53. Actress Judi Evans is 51. Rock singer Robin Wilson (Gin Blossoms) is 50. Actress Natalie Desselle Reid is 48. Actress Lisa Nicole Carson is 46. Olympic gold medal figure skater Kristi Yamaguchi is 44. Country singer Shannon Lawson is 42. Rapper Magoo is 42. Actress Anna Friel is 39. Rhythm-and-blues singer Tracie Spencer is 39. Actress Alison Wright (TV: “The Americans”) is 39. Actor Steve Howey is 38. Actor Topher Grace is 37. Actress Michelle Rodriguez is 37. Country singer-musician Kimberly Perry (The Band Perry) is 32. Actress Natalie Martinez is 31. Golfer Inbee Park is 27. Actress Rachel Brosnahan (TV: “House of Cards”) is 25. Actor Erik Per Sullivan is 24. Olympic gold medal gymnast Jordyn Wieber is 20. Nobel Peace laureate Malala Yousafzai (mah-LAH’-lah YOO’-suhf-zeye) is 18.

Thought for Today: “A man who fears suffering is already suffering from what he fears.” — Michel de Montaigne, French philosopher (1533-1592).